segunda-feira, 31 de agosto de 2009

The Evolution of Health Care in Historical Periods

The Pre-Christian
In this period the disease was taken as a punishment from God or result of the power of the devil. So the priests or witches accumulated functions of doctors and nurses. The treatment was to appease the deities, evil spirits away by sacrifice. Used are: massage, bath of cold water or hot, purgatives,
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substances provoking nausea. Later the priests acquired knowledge about medicinal plants and began to teach people, delegating to them duties of nurses and pharmacists. Some papyri, inscriptions, monuments, books of political and religious orientations, ruins of aqueducts and other findings allow us to form an idea of the treatment of patients.

- Egypt
The Egyptians left some papers on medicine known in his time. The prescription should be taken together with the recitation of religious formulas. Is practiced hypnotism, the interpretation of dreams, believed in the influence of some people about the health of others. There was free clinics, where it was recommended for the hospitality and assistance to the destitute.

- India
Documents of the sixth century BC tell us that the Hindus knew: ligaments, muscles, nerves, plexuses, lymphatics, antidotes for certain types of poisoning and the digestive process. They made some types of procedures such as sutures, amputations, fractures corneal and corrected. In this respect Buddhism contributes to the development of nursing and medicine. Hindus have become known for building hospitals. Were the only ones at the time, citing nurses and demanded their moral qualities and scientific knowledge. In hospitals were used musicians and storytellers to entertain the patients. Brahmanism did decline medicine and nursing, the exaggerated respect for the human body - forbade the dissection of corpses and bloodshed. Diseases were considered punishment.

- Assyria and Babylonia
Among the Assyrians and Babylonians were no penalties for unqualified practitioners, such as amputation of hands, compensation, etc.. The medicine was based on magic - it was believed that seven demons were causing disease. Priests, doctors selling talismans with prayers used against attacks from demons. In documents Assyrians and Babylonians is no mention of hospitals or nursing. Knew leprosy and its cure depended on the miracles of God, as in the biblical story of the bath in the river Jordan. "Go, wash yourself seven times in the Jordan River and your flesh will be clean." (II Kings, 5, 10-11)

- China
Chinese patients were cared for by priests. The diseases were classified as follows: benign, medium and severe. The priests were divided into three categories that correspond to the degree of disease which are occupied. The temples were surrounded by medicinal plants. The Chinese had their diseases: smallpox and syphilis. Procedures: operations lip. Treatment: anemia, iron and liver indicated, skin diseases, applied arsenic. Anesthesia: opium. They built some isolation hospitals and nursing homes. The surgery has not changed because of the ban on dissection of cadavers.

- Japan
The Japanese have adopted and encouraged euthanasia. Medicine was a fetishist and the only therapy was the use of thermal waters.

- Greece
Early theories were connected to Greek mythology. Apollo, the sun god, was the god of health and medicine. Used sedatives, tonics, and hemostatic, made bandages and removed foreign bodies also had homes for the treatment of patients. The medicine was practiced by the priests-physicians, who interpreted the dreams of people. Treatment baths, massage, bloodletting, diet, sun, pure air, pure mineral water. He gave value to the physical beauty, cultural and hospitality. Too much respect for the body delayed the anatomical studies. The birth and death were considered unclean, causing contempt for obstetrics and abandonment of seriously ill patients. The medicine became scientific, thanks to Hippocrates, who gave up the belief that diseases were caused by evil spirits. Hippocrates is considered the Father of Medicine. He observed the patient, made the diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. Recognized diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria, hysteria, neurosis, dislocations and fractures. His fundamental principle in the treatment was "not contrary to nature, but help it to react." Treatments used: massages, swimming, gymnastics, diet, bloodletting, cupping, emetics, purgatives and calming, herbal medicines and minerals.

- Rome
The medicine had no prestige in Rome. For a long time was performed by slaves or foreigners. The Romans were a people, mainly warrior. The individual took care of the state as a citizen to make it good warrior, brave and strong. Rome was distinguished for street cleaning, ventilation of houses, pure and abundant water and sewage networks. The dead were buried outside the city on the Appian Way. The development of Roman medicine was influenced by the people grage.
Christianity was the greatest social revolution of all time. Positive influence on the reform of individuals and families. Christians practiced as a charity, which moved the Gentiles: "See how they love. Since the beginning of Christianity the poor and the sick were the object of special care by the Church.

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